Alisadr Cave

History and Cultural-Historical Attractions of Hamadan Province

Hamadan’s nature and climate are appropriate for farming and grazing activities and that is why this region has been home to different ancient civilizations. Discovery of over 660 ancient hills which hold remnants of human activity throughout different times, confirms the above. Excavations in Gian Hill have shown that the relatively advanced civilizations which existed in this region go as far back as 4000 B.C. . Moreover, ancient Assyrian stone carvings mention Hamadan under the name of City of Casians and this shows existence of a city here at about 4000 B.C. . Medians’ immigration to west of Iran and the vicinity of current Hamadan, started about 3500 B.C. and their cultural mixing with inhabitants of the city gradually lead to the first central government in Iranian flat, whose capital was Hegmataneh (Ecbatana - Hamadan). The peak of this empire, the Median empire, was at about 650 B.C. when it conquered the Assyrian empire and extended its kingdom to Turkey (today) in the west and to eastern parts of Iran (today) in the east. According to Herodotus, the famous Greek historian, the first Median king Dia-Eko had very big castles built around the city. Today most researchers and historians believe that Hegmataneh Hill in the heart of Hamadan is a remnant of this castles.

This hill has undergone various researches in the recent years and the findings have been made available to public; Also, the excavations in Godin hills near Kangavar and Nooshijan in Malayer have revealed some parts of Median civilization and culture to us, including primal forms of writing, ancient coins and architecture. From Achamenian era, stone carvings in arrowhead writing, lots of gold and silver tools and remains of stone castles have been found and are available through National Museum and Hegmataneh Museum. Also from the Seleucid and Ashkani eras there is the statue of Stone Lion and the Partian cemetery and remains of a temple in Nahavand. One the main mints in the Sassanid era was located in Hamadan and various coins of this era have been found. Nahavand, too, was a very important city for the Sassanids and contained a very strong fortress and one of the seven Sassanid generals resided in this city. Arabs, during their attack on Iran, named conquering Nahavand “the victory of victories” and considered the fall of Hamadan in 645 A.D. . their second most difficult victory. The Qal’e Jooq cave in Famenin and ruins of a castle in the same area, now remain.

Islamic thoughts and beliefs resulted profound changes in arts and architecture. Various buildings and monuments remain from this era, some of which are: the beautiful and valuable Alavian Dome from the Saljooqi era - Qorban Tower - Astar and Mardkhai Mausoleums - Khezr Mausoleum from between the 7th and 9th century in Hamadan - Imamzadeh Eznav in Famenin from the Saljooqi era - Imamzadeh Hood and Imamzadeh Az’Har in Razan and the Mausoleum of prophet Hebqooq in Tooserkan from the 8th century - Imamzadeh Iah’Ia, Imamzadeh Hossein and Imamzadeh Ismaeel in Hamadan and Farasfaj Carevanserai and Sheikh Alikhan-e-Zangeneh school of religion in Tooserkan - A cistern and a stone carving known as the Aqajan Belaqi epigraph which about the construction of a dam in Asadabad - Mirfattah Ice-house in Malayer and Haj Aqa Torab in Nahavand and several bridges in Asadabad, including the broken (Khosroabad) bridge - Koorijan and Abshineh bridges in Hamadan - Jahanabad bridge in Famenin - Farasfaj bridge and the Bazaar in Tooserkan and Zaramin bridge in Nahavand all of them from the Safavi era - Bazaar, Jame’ Mosque and Imam square in Hamadan and bazaar of Malayer built after the Safavi era.

Moreover, Hamadan has always been a stronghold of great men of science, art, gnosis, religion and politics, some of the most prominent ones are: the great philosopher and physician Abu’ Ali Sina - the famous poet and gnostic Baba Taher - the great judge and gnostic Ein-ol-Qozat-e-Hamadani and political figures like Khajeh Rashid-ed-Din Fazl-el-Lah-e-Hamadani the well known vizier in Ilkhani era and poets and scholars like Mirzadeh Eshqi, Maftoon-e-Hamadani and religious and political figures like Seiied Jamal-ed-Din-e-Asadabadi. Islamic art lovers can both visit the monuments made in remembrance of some of these great figures (e.g. shrines of Abu Ali Sina and Baba Taher) and other historical and cultural heritage.

Add to all of the historical and cultural attractions, the natural and touristic features of Hamadan, including the beautiful and unique cave of Alisadr in Kaboodarahang, Ganjnameh and Abbad Abad resorts in Hamadan - Malayer park - Sar-Ab-e-Gian in Nahavand and summer parks of Asadabad. The unique and magnificent collection of cultural, historical and natural attractions in this area along with easy transportation and communication with Tehran and its cool weather in summer and spring makes Hamadan a perfect touristic province. Last year Hamadan rated the forth province in tourist attraction and the city of Hamadan has been chosen as touristic model for other parts of the province and if the program goals are achieved, the city and the province will become a well known international tourism center.

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